The Theory of Substance Integrity. Fundamentals.
Information | Energy | Matter | Evolution of the Universe
In the beginning was the Information,
This hypothesis offers a new perspective on the birth and expansion of the Universe as a process of inflation of a single substance in different phases of condensation: information, energy and matter. The main driving force behind this process is the tendency of information to infinity. Moreover, on the one hand, information is able to reproduce and self-organize into more complex structures, thereby increasing the overall amount of information. On the other hand, the information structures created are unstable and gradually turn into a state with zero information richness, i.e. with highest possible entropy, emitting, or rather creating energy at that.
This approach allows us to solve the key problems of modern physics, concerning the origin and development of the Universe: the issues about the origin of the Universe and its expansion with the acceleration observed at present. This hypothesis provides a fundamentally new explanation for the presence of cosmic microwave background radiation.
In addition, the evolution of life naturally fits into the overall development of the information field in this theory.
The theory of substance integrity also offers a new perspective on the fundamental laws of physics, including the law of conservation of energy.
Keywords: information, energy, matter, entropy, development of the Universe, evolution.
Basic concepts or basic components of the Universe
1. Information is a fundamental component of a single substance, which forms the Universe. Information can reproduce and self-organize into more complex structures, thereby increasing the overall amount of information.
However information structures are unstable and tend to gradually break down and turn into a state of maximum entropy, while energy is born.
It should be noted that we are accustomed to dealing with information that is present on a certain material or energy medium. But the existence of information, as such, i.e., information of abstract forms, is unquestionable. This type of information is present, for example, in the human minds.
In fact, there is no
energy without an information constituent, just like there is no matter without energy and information constituents. In other words, substance,
on the next level of condensation necessarily contains the previous phases, which also contributes to the growth of the overall amount of
information in the Universe, as the first phase of substance.
2. Energy is a condensed form of an information structure, "broken up" to a state with maximal entropy. An electromagnetic wave, as energy that is not related to material objects, is what is to be taken for “pure” form of energy.
In the process of accumulation, energy is able to condense into the next state – matter. In addition, under certain
conditions, energy can turn back into a form of information.
3. Matter is a condensed and ‘frozen' form of energy. Figuratively: if you stop an electromagnetic wave propagating with the speed of light, then a new substance correlating with energy with a coefficient equal to squared speed of light appears.
It is important that each of the three above-listed states of a single substance has fundamentally
different properties and characteristics. Together they form the Universe that we know, observe and study.
Processes of transition of substance from one state to another
Sharp transition among different physical states, entailing significant changes in properties and characteristics, is well studied in physics as part of describing phase transition. In the case of a single substance changing from one state to another, we can speak about a similar phenomenon, when condensed substance can abruptly move into another phase, sharply changing its properties and qualities, which correspond to the law of quantity-to-quality transition.
The colossal scale of quantitative transition is what represents the biggest difficulty in apprehending and interpreting the processes of state-to-state transitions of substance.
Scale of the transition: the "energy-to-mass" transition’s scale is about 1017 (squared speed of light). Accordingly, for the "information-to-energy" transition the expected degree is from 1023 (the Boltzmann constant, linking informational and statistical entropies) to 1034 (Planck constant, linking the energy and the frequency of a wave).
Physical description and construction of a mathematical model of the process of condensation of energy into matter is extremely difficult and stays unsolved until now. Despite all the difficulties, mankind has been successfully using the energy released during the reverse transition from the state of matter into the state of energy – nuclear energy – for more than half a century already.
In a manner of speaking, generalizing matter and energy into a single substance and discovering the ways of transition among these states, meant an energy revolution to mankind.
The full development of the theory about the structure of the Universe as a single substance being in different phases of condensation, will make a revolution in science and open up new horizons of knowledge and possibilities.
A bit of history (or a few words about a single substance)
At the beginning of the XX century, Albert Einstein put forward the hypothesis about the actual correlation between matter and energy. This
correlation is expressed in the well-known formula linking the two quantities through squared speed of light. Thus, the law of conservation of
mass, which was considered the unshakable part of our Universe, was only a special case of a more general law, the law of conservation of
energy. This generalization makes it possible to measure mass in energy units.
«What affects our senses in the form of a substance is in fact an enormous concentration of energy in a relatively small space. We could consider matter as such areas in space where the field is extremely strong...».
In addition, the properties of electromagnetic interactions remain: the condensation of energy of the electromagnetic field forms positively and negatively charged material objects. That is why it is only natural that mutual shifts of these objects cause disturbances of the electromagnetic field.
The unsolved problems of modern physics and ways to solve them
But is the “energy-matter” generalization the only component of our Universe? I mean, is it possible to assert that the Universe consists of energy and mass? Recent experimental data showing the expansion of the Universe with acceleration refute this claim and make us search for new forms of the substance that forms the Universe.
One theory that has the greatest number of supporters today is the Lambda-CDM model, in which the mysterious "dark matter" and "dark energy" serve as the additional components of the Universe, and, according to this model, their content must be at least 24 (!) times as big as the content of normal energy and matter.
However, none of the existing theories refers to information as a developed substance making up the universe. Moreover, the very notion of INFORMATION does not have a more or less explicit physical definition. Perhaps, that is why information has still not been considered a real component of our world and the Universe as a whole. Nevertheless, it is unquestionable that information is all around us. It may be associated both with material objects and with energy fields. Notably, just like matter cannot exist without energy, it cannot exist without information, and energy cannot exist without information either. Any material object or an electromagnetic field carries information.
This hypothesis suggests introducing an additional degree of concentration to the basic “energy-matter” substance of the Universe - information. That is, generalized substance will appear as "information-energy-matter." All these quantities actually exist and are pretty well studied and amenable to direct and indirect measurements.
Entropy in physics and information theory
There is a physical relationship between energy and information. It exists through entropy. In statistical mechanics and quantum physics, entropy is a probability measure of all possible states of the system; in thermodynamics, it is a measure of irreversible energy attenuation.
On the other hand, entropy in information theory characterizes the measure of uncertainty or randomness of information and actually determines the amount of accumulated information. Moreover, the amount of information will be minimal, when the probability of occurrence of any possible value of the system is equal. Now if we project it on a physical system: the amount of information in a system will be minimal, provided that the probabilities of all possible independent states of the system are equal. This is the kind of state that all physical systems approach: a stable state – a state with highest possible entropy and minimum potential energy. This fundamental law describes the force acting on the information and condensing it into the state of energy.
Simplified description of the “information-to-energy” condensation process
The increase of entropy means a transition of the information field of the system into uniform allocation.
Schematically, this process can be represented as a process of satiation of an abstract information block, that we will as usual present as a binary code:
1. Initial state:
2. The natural process of growth of entropy leads the system to the state of uniform allocation:
3. When this happens, emission of a quantum of electromagnetic energy is possible:
This is a simplified description of the natural process of condensing information into a form of energy. It should be noted that the necessary and the sufficient condition for the transition from the information phase into the energy phase, is the uniform allocation - the maximum entropy of the system. The occurrence of this transition depends neither on the amount of information, nor on the degree of condensation of this information. But the degree of condensation of information directly influences the amount of energy of the emitted quantum.
I.e. such quantum
will have lower energy than this quantum
The degree of condensation characterizes the frequency of the energy wave’s quantum. It corresponds with the well-known law that establishes linkage between the energy of an electromagnetic wave and its frequency through the Planck constant. In our case it shows the dependence of the quantum’s energy on the degree of accumulation of information that gave rise to the quantum.
Conclusions and Corollary
The objective Universe is a single self-developing substance in different phases of condensation: information, energy and matter. The driving force behind the development process of the universe is the tendency of information to infinity. At the same time, the process of inflation of information is not chaotic repetition of the information code, but a targeted self-developing mechanism, which, using the laws of nature, constructs new, more sophisticated information structures. On the other hand, the information structures created are unstable and gradually turn into a state with zero information richness, i.e., with maximal entropy, emitting, or rather creating energy at that.
According to the science of information, entropy is 0 for a system in which there is only one state (the probability of the state = 1). This statement can be projected onto the overall development of the Universe from a stable state to a state with endless variations. At that, part of the ever-increasing amount of information is condensed into a form of energy as a result of the natural tendency to uniform allocation. Part of the ever-increasing amount of energy is condensed into matter.
And the conclusion from this is that for the origin and development of the Universe there is no need to build a model of the original state, when all the information, energy and matter of the Universe are enclosed in a single material point of enormous density (point of singularity). And another conclusion is that the process of expansion of the Universe with acceleration is only natural, because the amount of information is increasing, and consequently, the amount of energy and mass which condense out of a form of information, grows too.
The cause of cosmic microwave background radiation is not the "Big Bang echo," but
rather natural radiation that appears during the destruction of information structures and condensation of information into energy. That is
why background radiation has no point source and it is observed relatively evenly throughout the entire space of the Universe.
Reasoning about time and space within the context of this hypothesis, it is possible to surmise that from the moment when inflation of information from zero volume to infinity began, time has been appearing as a measure of changes that occur in the volume of information. Besides time, space is needed for the presence of energy, for information to spread. When matter comes into existence, inertia and gravity appear, as characteristics of a new condensed state of a single substance.
This hypothesis about the structure of the Universe as a single substance in different phases of condensation requires reviewing many other physical laws and their new interpretation. Among other, the fundamental law of conservation of energy requires revision and additions, as it does not account for the constant replenishment of energy as a result of the system’s tendency to maximal entropy.
In addition, the corollary of the Clausius theorem (showing an irreversible increase in entropy in the Universe), is not the inevitable tendency to chaos, but just the process of accumulation of energy and mass in the Universe.
The origin and evolution of living organisms is one of the many "designed from the inside" and well-functioning mechanisms existing to accelerate the growth of the total amount of information in the Universe. Further transitions of “information-energy-matter” substance are also possible, i.e. the condensation of matter into the next phase state. This process may occur in "black holes".
Epilogue (by the author)
I am aware that the article is more philosophical than having a claim on physical and mathematical exactness and accuracy. However, I believe that this article will initiate the creation and development of a new theory that will be able to solve the contradictions of modern physics and on the basis of which a better instrument will be built for visual and accurate handling both in the world of elementary particles and in the cosmic scales of the Universe.
First of all, experimental evidence of the possibility of mutual “information-to-energy” transitions and the quantitative determination of the coefficient of this transition are necessary.
In the epilogue I want to apologize for the audacity of this hypothesis, since it disproves many established ideas about the reality around us. But this hypothesis appears so beautiful in its simplicity and logicality to me that I deem it my duty to publish it.
Acknowledgement of thanks
I express my sincere gratitude to Vladislav Böhm (PhDr., DrSc.), who opportunely directed me onto thought, asked necessary questions and gave valuable advice. Without his participation, this hypothesis wouldn’t appear.
Prague, october 2010 – june 2012